Major Mycotoxins And Toxin Producing Fungi From Corn, Cereals, Soybeans, Peanuts, And Other Products And Some Of Their Effects On Animals

Toxin or syndrome

Fungal source

Feeds or foods affected

Possible effects on animals

Aspergillus Toxins (primarily) Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 (B2a, G2a, M1, and M2 are metabolites and seldom present in grain; M1 and M2 are important contaminants in milk)

A. flavus and A. parasiticus

Cereal grains, peanuts, soybeans, and other foods.

Hepatotoxin; carcinogenic; reduced growth rate; hemmorrhagic enteritis; suppression of natural immunity to infection; decreased production of meat, milk, and eggs.
Ochratoxins (nephrotoxins)

A. ochraceus and Penicillium viridicatum

Cereal grains.

Toxic to kidneys and liver; abortion; poor feed conversion, reduced growth rate, general unthriftiness; reduced immunity to infection.

A. nidulans and A. versicolor

Cereal grains.

Toxemia; carcinogenic.
Tremorgenic toxin

A. flavus, P. cyclopium, and P. palitans

Cereal grains, soybeans, peanuts, and other food feeds.

Tremors and convulsions.
Penicillium Toxins (primarily) Luteoskyrin

P. islandicum


Tremors and convulsions.

P. urticae, P. expansum, P. claviforme, and A. clavatus

Cereal grains, apple products.

Hemorrhages of lung and brain; edema toxic to kidneys; possibly carcinogenic.

P. rubrum


Liver damage and hemorrhage.

P. citrinum


Kidney damage.
Penicillic Acid




Fusarium Toxins
Zearalenone (Estrogenic syndrome) Zearalenol

F. graminearum, F. tricinctum, and, in a minor way, F. moniliforme 

Cereal grains.

Hyperestrogenism, infertility, stunting, and even death.
 Emetic or feed refusal factor (Vomitoxin), deoxynivalenol or DON

F. graminearum (sexual state, Gibberella zeae)

Cereal grains.

Food refusal by swine, cats, dogs; reduction in weight gain.
Other trichothecenes (T-2, HT-2, Monoacetoxyscirpenol or MAS, Diactoxyscirpenol or DAS)

F. tricinctum, some strains of F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. lateritium, F. poae, and F. sporotrichoides

Cereal grains.

Severe inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and possible hemorrhage; edema; vomiting and diarrhea; infertility; degeneration of bone marrow; death; reduced weight gain; slow growth; sterility.
Fumonisin B1, B2

F. monoliforme


Leucoencephalomalacia, "blind staggers," in horses.
Ergot Toxins, Ergopeptines

Claviceps purpurea

Cereal grains.

Vasoconstriction, loss of extremities (ears, tail, feet, etc.)

Acremonium coenophialum


Reduced weight gain, abortion, poor survivability of offspring, fescue foot.

This document is part of the Webpage:
Compiled by Prof. Homero Fonseca, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil/ FONSECA & CIA. S/C LTDA. - ME